Fundamentals of Social Statistics

Adam J. McKee

This is my OER guide to very basic concepts of basic social statistics.  Note that this is not designed to be a comprehensive text for graduate students.  My bent is decidedly conceptual, and my goals tend toward intelligent consumerism that computational proficiency.  Rather than doing computations “by hand,” I focus on doing things in Excel or similar spreadsheet programs (e.g., Google Sheets).

This work is licensed under an Open Educational Resource-Quality Master Source (OER-QMS) License.

Open Education Resource--Quality Master Source License

Table of Contents


Section 1:  Basic Concepts

Section 1.1:  Statistics and the Social Sciences

Section 1.2:  Basic Math Review

Section 1.3:  Using Spreadsheets

Section 1.4: Variables

Section 1.5:  Scales of Measurement

Chapter 2:  Collecting and Organizing Data

Section 2.1: Probability and Samples

Section 2.2:  Nonprobability Sampling

Section 2.3: Describing Data

Section 2.4:  Percentages & Rates

Section 2.5:  Frequency Distributions

Chapter 3:  Describing Variables

Section 3.1:  Measures of Central Tendency

Section 3.2:  Measures of Variability

Section 3.3:  Standard Deviation

Section 3.4:  The Normal Curve

Section 3.5:  Percentiles and Standard Scores

Chapter 4:  Exploring Relationships

Section 4.1:  Introduction to Effect Size

Section 4.2:  Correlation

Section 4.3: Multiple Correlations

Section 4.4:  Linear Regression

Section 4.5: Advanced Regression Models

Chapter 5:  Hypothesis Testing

Section 5.1:  The Logic of Hypothesis Testing

Section 5.2:  Decision Errors

Section 5.3: Power

Section 5.4: Assumptions

Section 5.5: One-tailed vs. Two-tailed Tests

Chapter 6: Testing Null Hypotheses

Section 6.1: Error and Confidence Intervals

Section 6.2: t-Tests

Section 6.3: Non-parametric Tests

Section 6.4:  Significance and Correlations

Section 6.5:  ANOVA Tests

Chapter 7: Complex Models

Section 7.1: Multiple Regression

Section 7.2: Factor Analysis

Section 7.3:  Logistic Regression

Section 7.4: ANCOVA

Section 7.5: Structural Equation Models (SEMs)

Appendix A:  Significance of Pearson’s r

Appendix B: Critical Values of ChChi-Square

Appendix C:  Critical Values for Student’s t 

Appendix D:  Critical Values of F (.05 Level)

Appendix E: Studentized Range Statistic (q)

Appendix F: Standard Normal Distribution Table


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Last Modified:  02/14/2019